What Is Trimethoprim And Which Are The Trimethoprim Side Effects

trimethoprim side effectsTrimethoprim is an antibiotic used for the treatment of various infections, especially for infections of the urinary tract. However, it is sometimes prescribed for prophylaxis and treatment of various other bacterial infections like pneumonias (especially Pneumocystis carinii), otitis, sinusitis, bronchitis or other infections of the respiratory tract.

The drug acts as an inhibitor of the synthesis of the tetrahydrofolic acid, and prevents the bacteria to take up folic acid (vitamin B9) from the host, rendering them unable to replicate their DNA, leading them to thymineless death.

The most susceptible species of bacteria to this drug are E. coli, Haemophilus influenza and Klebsiella pneumonia.

Trimethoprim is commercialized under different trade names like Triprim, Proloprim and Monotrim.

Trimethoprim has an antiplatelet effect since it lowers the vitamin B9 levels, and due to this fact, one of the trimethoprim side effects is thrombocytopenia. This trimethoprim adverse effect can be identified through symptoms like bruising, epistaxis (nose bleeding), gum bleeding, purpura and petechiae.

Another one of the trimethoprim side effects is hyperkalemia, or an increased blood level of potassium. This condition may generate symptoms like paplitations, malaise, muscle weakness. cardiac arrhythmia, or in severe cases sudden death.

When used for treatment or prophylaxis of Escherichia coli infections, it may lead to an increased level of Shiga toxins, toxins generated especially by this bacteria.

One of the trimethoprim side effects is similar to the drugs prescribed for chronic alcoholism. If alcohol is consumed after the intake of the drug, it might severely increase the sensitivity to alcohol.

Other trimethoprim side effectes can be nausea and diarrhea. And lastly, patients can develop allergic reactions to this drug just as in medication with other drugs. Trimethoprim side effects of allergic nature are skin rashes, blisters and itchiness, breathing difficulties, angioedema and anaphylaxis.

In general, trimethoprim is well-tolerated by most patients, and the trimethoprim side effects are usually of mild nature, with very rare severe complications. Anyway, here are some of the contraindications of this drug.

Number one of the trimethoprim contraindications is pregnancy. This drug passes into the placenta and may affect the folate metabolism which can be detrimental for the development of the fetus. That why this drug is not recommended at least for the first trimester of pregnancy.

Since trimethoprim is a drug with antiplatelet effect, it is not recommended to patients with any blood disorder, blood circulatory problems, or history with any blood disease. Also, this drug is contraindicated for patients with renal and hepatic insufficiency, or in a case like this special dosage is required.

The normal dose for adults is 100 mg of trimethoprim every 12 hours, for 10 days. However, in patients with creatinine clearance deficiency special dosage is recommended. In general, for patients with a 15-30 mL/min creatinine clearance the dose should be 50 mg every 12 hours.

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